My teaching approach
My Teaching Approach
Over the years there has been quest for the best approach to teaching and learning language in both first language and second language acquisition. Many theories such as Behaviorism which focuses on the fact that learners learn by trial and error, and by building connections between stimuli and responses .It further consider leaning base on external behavior through repetition of desired actions, reward of good habits and discouragement of bad habits. Cognitivism, which focuses on inner mental activities (e.g. thinking, memory, knowing, and problem-solving) . It defines that learners learn by observing others who are more skilled or by participating in peripheral but significant tasks e.g. listening to the language in use. Constructivism, emphasis is on prior knowledge, skills, beliefs, concepts and experience of the learners, stating that all of these are social and cultural determinants that influence what they notice about the environment and how they organize and interpret it. All these and more facts which I am going to mention must be put at the back of once mind when making a good approach to teaching and learning a language.
Since it has been of paramount important that a good language teaching should focus on the learners, need, goal and motive. What I would want the student to learn will be based on these (need, goal and motive) considering the fact that English is their target language. Adult learners differ from children in several
Significant ways. As a teacher, also the fact that the key aim of language learning is to transfer information from the short?term memory to the long-term, This can
be achieve by techniques such as repetition, association, mnemonic
As a teacher I must take into consideration the attitude and emotional reactions of learners, which have an effect on the learning process ( Affective
Factors) John may be more motivated than James. Then what happen to James?. My role as a teacher is to inspire students to be motivated if they are not already, by encouraging and engaging them with interesting material. Adapt classes, teaching styles and activities to enable each student to reach their potential, which is of great use to me. Since some students are introvert, low self-esteem etc.
Therefore ,the important of a good language teaching should cover four macro-skilsl needed for communication- listening, speaking, reading and writing. As a good language teachers, plan lessons and sequences of lessons, which include a mixture of all the macro-skills, rather than focusing on developing only one macro-skill at a time will be emphasized. Each week as a teacher I should include some activities which focus on developing the students’ oral skills (e.g. pair and group interactions and games) and some activities which focus on literacy skills (e.g. reading and analysing texts and then students write their own). It is common for Student learners to have stronger receptive than productive skills, that is they can understand more than they can produce. I will often link activities for developing students’ receptive and productive skills. Also micro skills which focuses on Grammar, Vocabulary, Pronunciation, Spelling. This is for my advanced students which will want to write an exam for academic purpose.
Having decided which macro and micro skills would be a priority, for the student in question then comes the question: how should I organize a course so that these objectives are met? This is where the syllabus comes in. The course will be structured by a syllabu. This contain the context for each and every class. Considering the fact that, one of the most useful tools a teacher can possess is a well-structured syllabus. As teachers, it is my duty to develop a lession plans . I will basically focus on what the students know and don’t know (identify their needs) to determine what they have to learn (specify objectives).
An example of how to structure a class.
Using Jeremy Harmer’s ESA. Principle which is (engage. study and activate)
Oxbridge lesson structure is: Quick questions– I will ask a questions at the beginning of the class in other to engage the students. The target group are the P2.
The structure is this. Conversation, invite people using short answer, positive and interrogative, in all tenses.
(a) the student will learn how to make a positive sentence in all verb tenses.
(b) Student will learn how to ask question with interrogative sentences.
(c) Among other things student will learn some vocabulary used.
Activity 1: Show the student the Picture containing a written conversation and by oral drill ask them to repeat it. Conclude the class with wrap-up questions. This will give a belief assessment of how student understand the class (the outcome of the activity) .
The target language is vocabulary based. Some key word that was encountered during the activity will be further explain to the students by means of short sentence, picture and audio-listing. Through feedback the teacher will correct some errors made by the student at the end of the activity. Basically the major problem of the student is pronunciation.
A teacher is a playmaker and will direct the game all the time so that the students score their best goals. The student will be engage in speaking ,thereby enhancing their communicative competence. In the above activity no room was giving to mother tongue. Therefore the vehicle language of the classroom will be the target language (English) this will not total eliminate the effect of interlanguage which is the main problem with the beginners. I will ask questions connected to the activity to enable the students to understand the activity. This will go a long way to register in their long- term memory . A little aspect of Audio-Lingual Method which is the oral dill will be use since the teacher will ask the student to repeat the utterance .I will use the word repeat and the student will each time repeat . Picture connected to the activity will be use. Considering the need of the students and their learning style (The visual learner).In this activity the students has learnt some grammar, vocabulary and spelling. As a teacher, bearing in mind the area of interlanguage situation will give the student a feed back at the end of the activity. The teacher assess the students outcome- wrap up (including questions and revision based on the activities) to ensure understanding and effectiveness of the teaching .With this, I will conclude the class.
Considering the difference between teaching beginners and advanced students my approach will change since their needs, goals and motivations are different. While the beginners will focus on macro skills (listening, speaking, reading and writing) the advanced student will focus on micro skills (Grammar, Pronunciation, Vocabulary and Spelling). With this diagram my approach to the beginner will be based on oral skills (listening and speaking) while that of the advanced student will be on literacy skills (reading and writing).
For the beginners listening and reading which is a (receptive skills) are more important to them, since learners need to process and understand language being communicated to them in spoken or written form. While the speaking and writing (productive skills) will be for advance students which is bases on learners need to produce language to communicate their ideas in either speech or text. Also Total Physical Response (TPR) will be use for beginner. This principle believe that learners’ receptive skills (listening and reading) are generally a step ahead of their productive skills (speaking and writing); it is usually much easier for learners to understand something than to say something in the target language.
Teaching different age groups. Children, can acquire a language by repetition, association, mnemonic as well as an adult. Children like wise adult are (VAK) Visual learners, focusing on what they seeing (pictures; visual aids, overhead slides, diagrams, handouts, etc.) Auditory learners through listening (lectures, discussions, tapes, etc.). Kinesthetic learners experience (moving, touching, and doing).The determinate fact is the need, goal and motivation. The memory of a child can transfer information from short-term memory to a long –term memory more than that of and an adult. It can be said that young age group learn language fast than the adult age group.
In conclusion, which ever approach a teacher might use to make the student learn their target language is acceptable as long as it meet the needs and satisfaction of the student.
Oxbridge Approach: Lession Plan For 6mins.
Introduction :Ask the student question to engage them. For example how was your weekend
Issue: Music & cinama
Sub-issue: song interpretation
Objective: Ability to elicit meaning out of written text (song)
Description: Play a video of music to them and also show them a picture with written text.
Sub-issue: Plate and cutlery
Objective: Ability to know the names and function of different plates and cutleries
Description: Show them pictures of plates and cutleries and ask them identify
Issue: Expressing like, dislike, preferences & options
Sub-issue: preferences & suggestions with “would and “rather, better, sooner, prefer etc·”I’d rather, you’d better, I’d sooner, she’d prefer etc.
Objective: Ability to make sentence using these words
Description: show them some text with these word read it for them to repeat.
Wrap-up: Make a total review of the three activities and ask them questions. This will give the outcome of the activities. Also there will room for feedback.