It’s very important for a teacher to understand students’ needs in learning ,because each student will have different reason of wanting to learn English , their goal is their objectives, what they want out of the class , some of them learn English for their work , and some of them for Academic reasons , so they will have different motivations in learning English.
One of the most important thing in teaching is Motivation, motivation can be thought of as goal directed behavior, there are 2 main types of motivations (INTRINSIC and EXTRINSIC) for me as a teacher I usually use extrinsic motivation in teaching children, it can include things like small prizes, stickers, extra grades, because children do best only when extrinsic motivation is used. However INTRINSIC motivation is used mostly by Adults because the motivation comes from inside , it is not dependent on outside sources , it’s just the enjoyment of doing something, for example when given a problem to solve by a teacher , but offered no rewards . It is enjoyable and interesting for them to solve it , for me I can sometimes use this type of motivation for children also to let them use their minds and think , and I also can use the first type (extrinsic) for adults every now and then.
There also more affective factors which influence learning, for example opportunities, environment and personality.
It’s important to learn different styles , a learning style refers to the preferential way in which student absorbs, processes ,comprehends and retain information, when talking about learning styles we refer to either VAK model or multiple intelligences.
What do we mean by VAK model, is visual – auditory – kinesthetic learning styles, it is good to use this learning style in teaching both children and adults.
We have many types of multiple intelligences, for me I usually use Musical intelligence, Mathematical and body kinesthetic for teaching children
And I use interpersonal, verbal linguistics and body kinesthetic for teaching Adults.
One of my objectives of teaching beginners classes is to focus on Accuracy rather than fluency, it means how correct learners use the language including grammar, pronunciation and vocabulary , on the other hand I focus on fluency and accuracy also in Advanced classes ,sentences must be spoken smoothly and correctly.
Another objective for me is to have a main syllabus to establish what objective we state for students to acquire at certain stage in learning process through the distribution of different categories (vocabulary, structures, and topics)
So I manage my lesson in 3 steps first of all I start with the topic, reading comprehension which includes vocabulary and structure which is grammar.
I use the four macro-skills in my classes for both children and Adults students (listening, speaking and reading) because these skills are very important in learning a Language.
And I also use the Micro skills which consist of Pronunciation, spelling ,grammar and vocabulary , Vocabulary is one of the most important micro-skills when learning a foreign language, spelling is also important because it is the choice and arrangement letters that form words and grammar is the system of language or it is the rule of language, grammar include two approaches Deductive and inductive ,for me I usually use the Deductive approach with beginners students , they are given a general rule and then it is applied in specific language examples and through practice exercises , and on the other hand I use the inductive approach with intermediate-advanced students . It involves the learning detecting, noticing, patterns and working out a rule for themselves before they practice the language.
So when I’m talking about my objectives I mean they are the purposes and expected result of teaching activates that I put before giving a class or before teaching the whole course, however learning outcomes are the statements that describe what learner have achieved and can reliably demonstrate at the end of the course or program. So here is an example: if I have a reading comprehension lesson these are examples of my objectives: * review vocabulary, * Detect what they remember and conclude why they do so. The learning outcome are: * students will be able to name at least 4 terms of the topic that we’re talking about.
So objectives and outcomes make the class and the course managed and easier for the teacher, a teacher also has to be aware of his roles, these are some examples of teacher’s roles; a need analyst, a guide, a controller, a resource a play maker. And students as well have roles for example: passive learner, passive receiver, and self-manager, these roles make an interaction between the student and the teacher which is very important in a class.
a reflective teaching also make the class easier for a teacher , it means looking at what you do in the classroom , thinking about why you do it , asking yourself the right questions such as : what are you doing? Why are you doing it? How effective is it? These questions motivate you as a teacher to achieve your goals and objectives.
One important thing also for a teacher is to follow an approach; they involve the belief and principle underlying methods and based on theories about language learning and after that you have to have a procedure so you can obtain an expected result and of course it comes with the technique which is a specific strategy that is used in the classroom.
For me when I’m teaching advanced level I focus on Direct method; it avoids using the learners native language and uses only the target language, it focuses on the development of oral skills I also use Audio-lingual method, and the purpose of language learning is communication, students are taught the language directly without using the native language, I also use the silent way approach,it emphasizes the anatomy of the learner the teacher role is to monitor the students efforts .
On the other hand, when I’m teaching beginners I focus on Callan method that relies on continual drilling through questions and answers, it is a repetition if questions. I also use Total physical response method.
So here is an example of an activity that I gave to my advanced students; it is a game called the hot seat with the wheel of fortune, I asked my students to pick one students to sit on the hot seat and I gave him the wheel of fortune and he had to stop it, the students had to define the word and he had to guess, in this activity I focused on the silent way approach because I remained silent and I let my students to interact together ,and the direct method because they were focusing on the target language.
Another activity that I used with my beginners class: I had some grammar questions at the end of my lesson and I had to ask my students these questions quickly and repetitively and the one who answered first won. In this activity I used the Callan method.
In these types of activity or in an any class, student may have some errors, In this case I correct my students depend on their errors some of them can be corrected directly after the error and some of them can be corrected at the end of the class, for example if a student had an error using the right term or vocabulary I can correct him by using RETENTION and what do we mean by that is using activities which can help retention of new language such as mind maps, visualization… I also can use DRILL technique which the students have to repeat words or phrases after you.
After all one of the most helpful thing for me before teaching an English course is to have a GRADED LANGUAGE, graded language is classroom language and materials that are adapted to the level of the learner, MODELLING also helps us demonstrating a structure for students before then promoting them to produce a similar structure, it’s important to model for the learners of low level class. Understanding PACE is important for a teacher because it refers to the speed of the class and presentation of the lesson that depends on students’ abilities, activity types …