English teaching as a second language.
English is an international language. It has become a media for linking oneself with international communication channels and moving through information highways. Even the teaching and learning of English is slowly taking a stable place in the education system of Spain. In the changing global circumstances, it is assumed that in future English will claim even more attention in our national level of education.
In the present world,English is not just a language, rather it acts as indispensable resource for the countries.
Its important to find out why are the students learning this language .
According to "Richard Vaughan " In Spain "People don't learn English here for cultural reasons. Some do. But the motive is always, ninety-nine percent of the time, professional.
Since unemployment is one of the greatest problems of our country. A large number of our educated youths are unemployed. However, they are not fit for competing in international job market. One of their incompetences in this regard is lack of proficiency in English. Because, those who have the proper knowledge of English language and communication skills, can easily move throughout the world and maintain a suitable job better job in another country.
Some people think that learning English is vital because it is essentially the common language of international communication. It provides a common means of expressing views and voices of the people all over the world.
English is also important in the scientific and technological world. Almost all the technological and scientific terms and versions are in English. Hence, those have no proper knowledge of English language, they cannot acquire the knowledge of science and technology.Even technologically developed countries like Japan have also made English the second language.
There are millions of methods when teaching english, teachers and professors usually differ in opinion when defining their approach .
A commonly teaching method include class participating, demonstration, recitation memorization or combination of these .
In my opinion an effective learning method should be linked with bringing enthusiasm to the student and should include grammar structure in an implicit way.With this method students are exposed to information and acquire knowledge simple through exposure.
Furthermore, in the integrated lesson, learning is improved through increased motivation and the study of natural language seen in context.
A good example of this are the role plays in class, students are forced to communicate and fulfill their needs by using the english language.On the other hand a good method should integrate and develop the four languages areas such as listening, speaking and writing, reading.
When learners are interested in a topic they are motivated to acquire language to communicate. In this case, fluency is more important than accuracy and errors are a natural part of language learning. So, learners develop fluency in English by using English to communicate for a variety of purposes.
Additionally learners should develop receptive skills and productive skills.
Receptive skills are listening and reading. Because learners do not need to produce language to do these, they receive and understand it. These skills are sometimes known as passive skills.Often in the process of learning new language, learners begin with receptive understanding of the new items, then later move on to productive use. The relationship between receptive and productive skills is a complex one, with one set of skills naturally supporting another. For example, building reading skills can contribute to the development of writing
The productive skills are speaking and writing, They are also known as active skills.Learners have already spent time practicing receptive skills with a shape poem, by listening to it and reading it. They now move on to productive skills by group writing their own, based on the example. Certain activities, such as working with literature and project work, seek to integrate work on both receptive and productive skills
Independent practice can help you practice your receptive skills.Listening to pop casts or watching English will help you to improve your receptive skills.
Reading more will help students to write better. Listening more will help them improve their speaking skills.
Productive skills improve from stronger receptive skills even though methodologist said is its very difficult to find a balance among them
On the other hand when learning a language ,there some affective factors students can face .
In Spain for example we face several problems. Most of their English classes were taught in Spanish by Spanish speakers. A few of them had attended classes taught by native speakers and groaned about how difficult it was to be immersed in an English speaking environment.
Another problem was that native speaker teachers couldn’t answer their grammar questions
On the other hand they were ashamed of their poor English and didn’t want to look foolish in front of their peers.They identified this as a uniquely Spanish psychological trait. Indeed, they generally ask for tips about improving it but always speak in Spanish.
Additionally, in Spain film are dubbed in Spanish, in other countries like Chile although Chileans studied English at kindergarten, films and TV shows are subtitled but not dubbed.They have had grown up hearing English. Therefore their intonation, phonemes and stress patterns are better when learning English as a second language.
As a result a language acquisition process could be slower in those countries where student are not exposed to an English speaking environment.
But which age groups acquire the second language the fastest ?
The fact that young children are the best second language learners could be a myth. In fact, studies have shown that adolescents and adults are in many ways better at learning a new language than children, except in the area of pronunciation.
This is probably because they are already literate in their first language and can use some of their knowledge about language and language learning when learning the second language.
However, this doesn't answer the important question: What's the best age to learn a new language?, like most about language learning, It depends on the situation.
According to current research, is early adolescence, so about 11-13. And the more motivated the child is to learn the new language, the more successful he will be.
Even in different ages frame students might encounter interlanguage problems.One of the interlanguage problems are the False Friends.
Spanish originates from Latin; therefore, its vocabularies correspond with the Latin-derived side of the English language .Cognates can be both a blessing and a curse. Indeed, while these thousands of cognates can help Spanish-speaking English language learners accelerate their acquisition of English vocabulary, some of them are “false friends” and deserve to be pointed out for the benefit of the learners.
After a long vacation, it’s hard to regress to school.
After a long vacation, it’s hard to return to school.
The Spanish verb “regresar” means “return.”
All these element should be considered when planning a syllable for instance my approach for an Advanced Business English students would be using internet.
I could call it a vocab-functional based approach.
The Internet is a wonderful resource for teachers. It helps you enrich your lessons, provides you with authentic and up-to-date materials, and help you prepare for lessons as well as provide a fantastic opportunity for both your own research and that of your students.
Choose company websites that are related to your students’ work, which can therefore provide the vocabulary practice your students need. Then you can prepare questions about the content of the website you have chosen, and let your students scan the website for information
Useful materials in the class should awake their interest and be related to a topic.It is thought that the number of new words learners can successfully absorb is 6-8 words.
Another example would be , a good video of an entrepreneur, it will help to introduce discussion in your class you could pick 2 famous entrepreneurs and prepare questions about them (perfect for practicing business-related vocabulary and structures, for instance ‘Which business did he found?’
The teacher´s role in all levels is very important, particularly in advanced levels, a good rapport with the students is essential, encourage student to participate, motivate them and create a debate.TTT(Teacher Talking Time ) should be kept to the minimum.
Conduct the activities in a dynamic way and adjust to your students pace. Keep the eye contact and keep them interest in the class.
For instance: Check the assessment outcome with concept checking questions about the vocabulary learnt in the class
What kind of entrepreneur are you ?
In an stark contrast children are naturally learners.They are born wanting to learn about the world .
Specifically babies, gain understanding long before they can speak, and benefit from having a rich language environment, because babies actually learn to talk by listening.
Frequent daily exposure to words and active social engagement helps the brain pathways that foster language learning to develop more fully.
Small group activities are appropriate for children.Be sure you are down on the floor with your children.
One fun activity is Balloon colors this activity is ideal for baby between 9 to 12 months old.
Have different balloons in different colors such as Yellow blue green orange .Put your finger each balloon and tell your baby the color.Guide your baby´s finger to each balloon and say the color .encourage your little to point randomly at a balloon while you say its color .
In this case teachers should be engaging, nurture care to infants and toddler and easy to respond to their needs.
In this age frame learning assessment outcome should be achieve through repetition and modeling using games and activities.
In a nutshell great English teachers balance spontaneity with structure.Their lessons can feel hugely creative and unpredictable
A student will know where she's heading,what she needs to work on to improve. And yet it will all feel so fluid, so unforced, so natural.This is the great English teacher's gift.
An outstanding ESL teacher have respect for your students and their cultures.
Have Understanding of the Individual Needs ,Encourage English Conversations & Involvement Outside the Classroom.
Culture and communication go hand in hand, and knowing and respecting our students are as important as covering the grammatical structures outlined on the syllabus.
Not every speaker of English is a great teacher of English, but every teacher of English can become a great educator. Keeping in mind the needs and emotions of our students, goes a long way to creating a classroom where students not only learn but are transformed.